Episode 8: JFK & Margaret Thatcher
Updated: Jun 16, 2019
In this week's special episode of Blood & Wine, Brittany and Tyler celebrate the Fourth of July by taking a look at two tragic political attacks: The Assassination of John F. Kennedy and The Attempted Assassination of Margaret Thatcher.
Wine Picks: Picton Bay Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc, 2017 & Aime La Vie! Syrah-Grenache, 2017
Marlborough is the absolute best Sauvignon Blanc region in the world.
Tastes like an $18 wine but it was only $8.
The same green herb, grass, and gardenia that you would get from a much pricier wine. This one had a pronounced limey-ness too, almost like limeade. Great acidity, a slight jalapeño burn (typical of the region), lime flavors, and a streamy–ness.
Rosé (Trader Joes)
The mineral-rich, clay-limestone soils in Languedoc-Roussillon, dating to the Jurassic period, are ideal for cultivating both Syrah and Grenache.
It is dry, fruity, and refreshing.
Fresh and fruit forward, with strawberry and Bing cherry notes, finishing with a crisp acidity.
Easy to drink on its own or with baguette slices and soft cheese, it’s confident enough to pair with lighter meat dishes like baked chicken or roasted fish.
This is a classic French Rosé, for only $7.
Brittany's JFK Notes:
The Assassination, Main Summary:
November 22, 1963
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife, Nellie when he was fatally shot. Governor Connally was seriously wounded in the attack. The motorcade rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital where President Kennedy was pronounced dead about thirty minutes after the shooting; Connally recovered from his injuries.
Former U.S. Marine and Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested by the Dallas Police Department about 70 minutes after the initial shooting. Oswald was charged under Texas state law with the murder of Kennedy as well as that of Dallas policeman J. D. Tippit, who had been fatally shot a short time after the assassination. At 11:21 a.m. Sunday, November 24, 1963, as live television cameras covered his transfer to the Dallas County Jail, Oswald was fatally shot in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters by Dallas nightclub operator Jack Ruby. Oswald was taken to Parkland Memorial Hospital where he soon died. Ruby was convicted of Oswald's murder but died in prison in 1967.
After a ten-month investigation, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald assassinated Kennedy, that Oswald had acted entirely alone, and that Ruby had acted alone in killing Oswald. Kennedy was the eighth US President to die in office and the fourth (following those of Lincoln, Garfield, and McKinley) and most recent to be assassinated. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson automatically became President upon Kennedy's death.
In n contrast to the conclusions of the Warren Commission, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded in 1979 that Kennedy was "probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy". The HSCA agreed with the Warren Commission that the injuries that Kennedy and Connally sustained were caused by Oswald's three rifle shots, but they also determined the existence of an additional gunshot based on the analysis of a dictabelt audio recording and therefore "... a high probability that two gunmen fired at [the] President." The Committee was not able to identify any individuals or groups involved with the possible conspiracy. In addition, the HSCA found that the original federal investigations were "seriously flawed" with respect to information-sharing and the possibility of conspiracy. As recommended by the HSCA, the acoustic evidence indicating conspiracy was subsequently re-examined and rejected.
In light of the investigative reports determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman," the U.S. Justice Department concluded active investigations and stated "that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in ... the assassination of President Kennedy." However, Kennedy's assassination is still the subject of widespread debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories and alternative scenarios. Nonetheless, polls conducted from 1966 to 2004 found that up to 80 percent of Americans have suspected that there was a plot or cover-up.
So why was JFK in Dallas?
Kennedy later decided to embark on the trip with three basic goals in mind:
To help raise more Democratic Party presidential campaign fund contributions;
Begin his quest for reelection in November 1964
To help mend political fences among several leading Texas Democratic party members who appeared to be fighting politically amongst themselves since the Kennedy-Johnson ticket had barely won Texas in 1960 (and had even lost in Dallas).
President Kennedy's trip to Dallas was first announced to the public in September 1963. The exact motorcade route was finalized on November 18 and publicly announced in the paper a few days before November 22, intending to give people the opportunity to find where they would watch the president drive by.
The motorcade route was intended to give JFK some exposure to the local crowds while he was in route to the Trade Mart for lunch with civic and business leaders. Starting at Love Field, the route passed through a suburban section of Dallas, through Downtown along Main Street, and finally to the Trade Mart via a short segment of the Stemmons Freeway. The Texas School Book Depository was situated at the northwest corner of the Houston and Elm Street intersection, which was right before Dealey Plaza. There were three cars surrounding JFK filled with secret service and police.
JFK was actually planning to head to Austin for a fundraising dinner that same evening.
The motorcade was running a bit behind schedule due to the nearly 200,000 people out to see JFK, and by the time it reached Dealey Plaza, they were only 5 minutes away from their destination.
President Kennedy's convertible limousine entered Dealey Plaza at 12:30 p.m. CST. Nellie Connally, the First Lady of Texas, turned around to the President, who was sitting behind her, and commented, "Mr. President, you can't say Dallas doesn't love you," which President Kennedy acknowledged by saying "No, you certainly can't." Those were the last words ever spoken by JFK.
As the vehicle turned onto Elm, the motorcade passed by the Texas School Book Depository. Suddenly, shots were fired at President Kennedy as his motorcade continued down Elm Street. About 80% of the witnesses recalled hearing three shots.
President Kennedy's last seconds of traveling through Dealey Plaza were recorded on silent 8mm film for the 26.6 seconds before, during, and immediately following the assassination. This famous film footage was taken by garment manufacturer and amateur cameraman Abraham Zapruder, and became known as the Zapruder film. The complete film, which lasts for roughly over 26 seconds, was valued at $16 million.
Zapruder was not the only person who photographed at least part of the assassination; a total of 32 photographers were in Dealey Plaza that day.
Within one second of each other, President Kennedy, Governor Connally, and Mrs. Kennedy all turned abruptly from looking to their left to looking to their right, between Zapruder film frames 155 and 169. Connally testified that he immediately recognized the sound as that of a high-powered rifle, then he turned his head and torso rightward, attempting to see President Kennedy behind him. Governor Connally testified he could not see the President, so he then started to turn forward again (turning from his right to his left). The governor also testified that when his head was facing about 20 degrees left of center, he was hit in his upper right back by a bullet that he did not hear get fired. The doctor who operated on Connally measured his head at the time he was hit as having turned 27 degrees left of center. After Connally was hit, he shouted, "Oh, no, no, no. My God. They're going to kill us all!”
Mrs. Connally testified that just after hearing a loud, frightening noise that came from somewhere behind her and to her right, she turned toward President Kennedy and saw him raise up his arms and elbows, with his hands in front of his face and throat. She then heard another gunshot and then Governor Connally yelling. Mrs. Connally then turned away from Kennedy toward her husband, at which point another gunshot sounded and she and the limousine's rear interior were covered with fragments of skull, blood, and brain.
According to the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee on Assassinations, Kennedy was waving to the crowds on his right with his right arm upraised on the side of the limo when a shot entered his upper back, penetrated his neck and slightly damaged a spinal vertebra and the top of his right lung. The bullet exited his throat nearly centerline just beneath his larynx and nicked the left side of his suit tie knot. He raised his elbows and clenched his fists in front of his face and neck, then leaned forward and left. Mrs. Kennedy, facing him, then put her arms around him in concern.
Governor Connally also reacted after the same bullet penetrated his back just below his right armpit. The bullet created an oval-shaped entry wound, impacted and destroyed four inches of his right fifth rib, and exited his chest just below his right nipple. This created a two-and-a-half inch oval-shaped air-sucking chest wound. That same bullet then entered his arm just above his right wrist and cleanly shattered his right radius bone into eight pieces. The bullet exited just below the wrist at the inner side of his right palm and finally lodged in his left inner thigh. The Warren Commission theorized that the "single bullet" struck sometime between Zapruder frames 210 and 225, while the House Select Committee theorized that it struck exactly at Zapruder frame 190.
According to the Warren Commission, a second shot that struck the President was recorded at Zapruder film frame 313. The Commission made no conclusion as to whether this was the second or third bullet fired. The presidential limousine then passed in front of the John Neely Bryan north pergola concrete structure. The two investigative committees concluded that the second shot to hit the president entered the rear of his head (the House Select Committee placed the entry wound four inches higher than the Warren Commission placed it) and passed in fragments through his skull; this created a large, "roughly ovular" hole on the rear, right side of the head. The president's blood and fragments of his scalp, brain, and skull landed on the interior of the car, the inner and outer surfaces of the front glass windshield, the raised sun visors, the front engine hood, and the rear trunk lid. His blood and fragments also landed on the Secret Service follow-up car and its driver's left arm, as well on the motorcycle officers who were riding on both sides of the President just behind his vehicle.
Secret Service Special Agent Clint Hill was riding on the left front running board of the follow-up car, which was immediately behind the Presidential limousine. Hill testified that he heard one shot, then, he jumped off into Elm Street and ran forward to try to get on the limousine and protect the President.
After the President was shot in the head, Mrs. Kennedy began climbing out onto the back of the limousine, though she later didn't have any recollection of doing so. Hill believed she was reaching for something, perhaps a piece of the President's skull. He jumped onto the back of the limousine while at the same time Mrs. Kennedy returned to her seat, and he clung to the car as it exited Dealey Plaza and accelerated, speeding to Parkland Memorial Hospital.
After Mrs. Kennedy crawled back into her limousine seat, both Governor Connally and Mrs. Connally heard her repeatedly say, "They have killed my husband. I have his brains in my hand." In a long-redacted interview for Life magazine days later, Mrs. Kennedy recalled, "All the ride to the hospital I kept bending over him saying, 'Jack, Jack, can you hear me? I love you, Jack.' I kept holding the top of his head down trying to keep the [...]" The President's widow could not finish her sentence.
Kennedy was pronounced dead in the emergency room at 1PM.
Lyndon B Johnson was sworn in as president at 2:38pm aboard Air Force One, as it was about to depart from Love field.
There were at least 104 ear witnesses in Dealey Plaza who were on record with an opinion as to the direction from which the shots came. Fifty-four (51.9%) thought that all shots came from the Texas School Book Depository building. Thirty-three (31.7%) thought that they came from either the grassy knoll or the triple underpass. Nine (8.7%) thought that each shot came from a location entirely distinct from the knoll or the depository. Five (4.8%) believed that they heard shots from two locations, and 3 (2.9%) thought that the shots originated from a direction consistent with both the knoll and the depository.
The Warren Commission additionally concluded that three shots were fired and said that "a substantial majority of the witnesses stated that the shots were not evenly spaced. Most witnesses recalled that the second and third shots were bunched together."
Lee Harvey Oswald:
Roy Truly, Lee Harvey Oswald's supervisor at the depository, reported him missing to the Dallas police. About 70 minutes after the assassination, Oswald was arrested for the murder of Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit. According to witness Helen Markam, Tippit had spotted Oswald walking along a sidewalk in the residential neighborhood of Oak Cliff, three miles from Dealey Plaza. Officer Tippit had earlier received a radio message that gave a description of the suspect being sought in the assassination, and he called Oswald over to the patrol car.
Markam testified that after an exchange of words, Tippit got out of his car and Oswald shot him four times. Multiple witnesses saw a man they identified as Oswald shoot Tippit or flee the scene after emptying the bullet casings from his gun. Oswald was next seen by shoe store manager Johnny Brewer "ducking into" the entrance alcove of his store. Suspicious of this activity, Brewer watched Oswald continue up the street and slip into the nearby Texas Theatre without paying. Brewer alerted the theater's ticket clerk, who telephoned the police at about 1:40 p.m.
According to M.N. McDonald, who was one of the arresting officers, Oswald resisted arrest and was attempting to draw his pistol when he was struck and forcibly restrained by the police. He was charged with the murders of President Kennedy and Officer Tippit later that night. Oswald denied shooting anyone.
Oswald's case never came to trial. Two days after the assassination, as he was being escorted to a car in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters for the transfer from the city jail to the county jail, Oswald was fatally shot by Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby. The incident was broadcast live on American television at 11:21 a.m. CST on Sunday, November 24. Unconscious, Oswald was rushed by ambulance to Parkland Memorial Hospital, the same facility where doctors had tried to save President Kennedy's life two days earlier; he died at 1:07 p.m. Arrested immediately after the shooting, Ruby later said that he had been distraught over the Kennedy assassination and that killing Oswald would spare "... Mrs. Kennedy the discomfiture of coming back to trial.”
An Italian Carcano M91/38 bolt-action rifle was found on the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository by Deputy Constable Seymour Weitzman and Deputy Sheriff Eugene Boone soon after the assassination of President Kennedy. Compared to photographs taken of Oswald holding the rifle in his backyard, it was a match.
The secondhand Carcano rifle had been purchased by Oswald in previous March, under the alias "A. Hidell" and delivered to a post office in Dallas where Oswald had rented a post-office box. According to the Warren Commission Report, a partial palm print of Oswald was also found on the barrel of the gun, and a tuft of fibers found in a crevice of the rifle was consistent with the fibers and colors of the shirt Oswald was wearing at the time of his arrest.
A bullet found on Governor Connally's hospital gurney and two bullet fragments found in the Presidential limousine were ballistically matched to this rifle.
The Warren Commission:
On November 29, 1963, Johnson established the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy in order to investigate his predecessor’s death. The commission was led by Chief Justice Warren, a former governor of California who was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1953. The commission also included two U.S. senators, two U.S. representatives, a former CIA director and a former World Bank president.
During its almost yearlong investigation, the Warren Commission, as it was commonly known, reviewed reports by the FBI, Secret Service, Department of State and the attorney general of Texas, and also pored over Oswald’s personal history, political affiliations and military record. The group listened to the testimony of hundreds of witnesses and traveled to Dallas several times to visit the site where Kennedy was shot.
In its 888-page report presented to Johnson on September 24, 1964 (and released to the public three days later), the commission concluded that the bullets that killed Kennedy and injured Connally were fired by Oswald in three shots from a rifle pointed out of a sixth-floor window in the Texas School Book Depository. Oswald’s life, including a visit he made to the Soviet Union, was described in detail, but the report made no attempt to analyze his motives. Additionally, the commission found that the Secret Service had made poor preparations for Kennedy’s visit to Dallas and had failed to sufficiently protect him, and concluded that Ruby had acted alone in killing Oswald.
Single Bullet Theory:
A big part was the single bullet theory, or magic bullet. This theory posits that a single bullet caused all the wounds to the governor and the non-fatal wounds to the president, which totals up to seven entry/exit wounds in both men. The theory says that a three-centimeter (1.2″)-long copper-jacketed lead-core 6.5×52mm Mannlicher–Carcano rifle bullet fired from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository passed through President Kennedy’s neck and went into Governor Connally’s chest, went through his wrist, and embedded itself in the Governor’s thigh. If so, this bullet traversed 15 layers of clothing, 7 layers of skin, and approximately 15 inches of muscle tissue, struck a necktie knot, removed 4 inches of rib, and shattered a radius bone. The bullet was found on a gurney in the corridor at Parkland Memorial Hospital after the assassination. The Warren Commission found that this gurney was the one that had borne Governor Connally.
The House Select Committee on Assassinations:
the late 1970s, the U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) launched a new investigation into Kennedy’s death. In its final report, issued in 1979, the HSCA agreed with the Warren Commission’s findings that two bullets fired by Oswald had killed Kennedy and wounded Connally. However, the HSCA also concluded there was a high probability that a second gunman fired at Kennedy, and that the president was probably assassinated as a result of an unspecified conspiracy. The committee’s findings, as with the those of the Warren Commission, continue to be debated.
The enormous volume of documentation from the Warren Commission was placed in the National Archives and much of it is now available to the public. However, access to Kennedy’s autopsy records is highly restricted. To view them requires membership in a presidential or congressional commission or the permission of the Kennedy family.
A number of conspiracy theories arose, involving such disparate suspects as the Cuban and Soviet governments, organized crime, the FBI and CIA and even Johnson himself. Some critics of the Warren Commission’s report believed that additional ballistics experts’ conclusions and a home movie shot at the scene disputed the theory that three bullets fired from Oswald’s gun could have caused Kennedy’s fatal wounds as well as the injuries to the Texas governor.
Tyler's Margaret Thatcher Notes:
IRA has existed in many forms since the early 20th century but the one we are talking about today is the Provisional IRA. Irish republicanism is the idea that all of Ireland should be under one rule. The IRA sought to rid the British from Northern Ireland.
The IRA was designated an unlawful terrorist organization in the United Kingdom and an unlawful organization in the Republic of Ireland.The Provisional IRA emerged in December 1969, following a split in the republican movement.
The Troubles had begun a year before, when a largely Catholic, nonviolent civil rights campaign was met with violence from both Ulster loyalists (Protestant supporters of unionization with the UK) and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (the police force in northern Ireland), culminating in the August 1969 riots and deployment of British troops.
The IRA initially focused on defense of Catholic areas, but it began an offensive campaign in 1971. The IRA's primary goal was to force the United Kingdom to negotiate a withdrawal from Northern Ireland It used guerrilla tactics against the British Army and RUC in both rural and urban areas. It also carried out a bombing campaign in Northern Ireland and England against what it saw as political and economic targets.
Intro: The Troubles:
The Troubles was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century. Also known internationally as the Northern Ireland conflict, it is sometimes described as a "guerrilla war" or a "low-level war".
The conflict began in the late 1960s. Although the Troubles primarily took place in Northern Ireland, at times the violence spilled over into parts of the Republic of Ireland, England, and mainland Europe. The conflict was primarily political and nationalistic, fueled by historical events. A key issue was the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. Unionists/loyalists, who were mostly Protestants, wanted Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom. Irish nationalists/republicans, who were mostly Catholics, wanted Northern Ireland to leave the United Kingdom and join a united Ireland.
The conflict began during a campaign to end discrimination against the Catholic/nationalist minority by the Protestant/unionist government and police force.The authorities attempted to suppress this protest campaign and were accused of police brutality; it was also met with violence from loyalists, who alleged it was a republican front. Increasing inter-communal violence, and conflict between nationalist youths and police, eventually led to riots in August 1969 and the deployment of British troops. Some Catholics initially welcomed the army as a more neutral force, but it soon came to be seen as hostile and biased.The emergence of armed paramilitary organizations led to the subsequent warfare over the next three decades.
The IRA set off bombs in many places over the years with the largest being The Dublin and Monaghan bombings of 17 May 1974, which were a series of coordinated bombings in Dublin and Monaghan, Ireland. Three bombs exploded in Dublin during the evening rush hour and a fourth exploded in Monaghan almost ninety minutes later. They killed 33 civilians and a full-term unborn child, and injured almost 300. The bombings were the deadliest attack of the conflict known as the Troubles, and the deadliest attack in the Republic's history.
More than 3,500 people were killed in the conflict, of whom 52% were civilians, 32% were members of the British security forces, and 16% were members of paramilitary groups.
Intro: Margaret Thatcher
Prime minister of the UK from 79 to 90 and leader of the conservative party from 75 to 90. Longest serving PM of the 20th century and the first woman.
Very polarizing person even today, a lot of people love her and a lot of people really hate her.
In 1980 and 1981, Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) prisoners in Northern Ireland's Maze Prison carried out hunger strikes in an effort to regain the status of political prisoners that had been removed in 1976 by the preceding Labour government.
Bobby Sands began the 1981 strike, saying that he would fast until death unless prison inmates won concessions over their living conditions. Thatcher refused to support a return to political status for the prisoners, having declared "Crime is crime is crime; it is not political", Nevertheless, the British government privately contacted republican leaders in a bid to bring the hunger strikes to an end. After the deaths of Sands and nine others, the strike ended. Some rights were restored to paramilitary prisoners, but not official recognition of political status. Violence in Northern Ireland escalated significantly during the hunger strikes.
The IRA hatched its plan to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher – who they blamed for the death of hunger strikers including Bobby Sands – in 1983. The terrorist group chose the following year’s Conservative party conference in Brighton and the town’s Grand Hotel, as the location – and chose explosives officer Patrick Magee as the man to plant the bomb.
The plan was to use a bomb with a very long delay – and so three weeks before the conference, Magee and a female accomplice checked into the Grand Hotel for four nights under a false name. They stayed in room 629 – five floors above the hotel’s VIP suites – and Magee planted the 20lb gelignite (blasting jelly) bomb (which used a timer from a VCR) behind the bath panel in the bathroom. He programmed the device to detonate 24 days later, at 02:53am on the last night of the Conservative party conference.
Flash forward, the party conference was a great success – and on the final night, Thatcher stayed up past midnight in her first-floor VIP suite, working on the speech she would be giving to the conference the following day.
The bomb exploded at its planned time, when most of the hotel’s 318 guests were asleep in bed. Thatcher, however, had still been up in her sitting room, working with her private secretary, just moments before. “Both she and I knew immediately that it was a bomb,” he later said.
The explosion ripped through the top floors of the hotel, creating a huge hole in its front and causing a chimney stack to collapse and crash through the centre of the building. The midsection of the building collapsed into the basement, leaving a gaping hole in the hotel's facade. Firemen said that many lives were likely saved because the well-built Victorian hotel remained standing. It missed Thatcher’s living room by inches, but hit her bathroom and bedroom, where her husband Dennis was sleeping.
Many guests and delegates – including cabinet minister Norman Tebbit and his wife Margaret – were trapped by falling masonry and rubble as the rooms collapsed in the centre of the hotel. There were chaotic scenes as wounded survivors made their way out, covered in dust – but fire officers were at the scene by 3am. Margaret and Denis Thatcher were rushed out of the rear of the hotel and taken by car to Brighton police station.
It wasn’t until the following morning that it became clear that several people had died in the explosion and more than 30 had been severely injured – including Tebbit and his wife.
Margaret Thatcher insisted that the conference would continue as scheduled that day – and as she made her way to the conference centre, the IRA issued a statement taking responsibility for the bomb. “Today, we were unlucky. But remember, we only have to be lucky once; you will have to be lucky always,” it warned. “Give Ireland peace and there will be no war.”
The Prime Minister went against police wishes and entered the conference centre by its front entrance in full glare of the media and gave a redrafted speech to the conference. Margaret Thatcher began the next session of the conference at 9:30 am the following morning, as scheduled. She dropped from her speech most of her planned attacks on the Labour Party and said the bombing was "an attempt to cripple Her Majesty's democratically elected Government."
That is the scale of the outrage in which we have all shared, and the fact that we are gathered here now—shocked, but composed and determined—is a sign not only that this attack has failed, but that all attempts to destroy democracy by terrorism will fail. One of her biographers wrote that Thatcher's "coolness, in the immediate aftermath of the attack and in the hours after it, won universal admiration. Her defiance was another Churchillian moment in her premiership which seemed to encapsulate both her own steely character and the British public's stoical refusal to submit to terrorism". Immediately afterwards, her popularity soared almost to the level it had been during the Falklands War. The Saturday after the bombing, Thatcher said to her constituents: "We suffered a tragedy not one of us could have thought would happen in our country. And we picked ourselves up and sorted ourselves out as all good British people do, and I thought, let us stand together for we are British! They were trying to destroy the fundamental freedom that is the birth-right of every British citizen, freedom, justice and democracy."
Five people were killed and 34 were injured in the Brighton bomb blast. Those who died included Sir Anthony Berry MP and Roberta Wakeham, wife of Parliamentary Treasury Secretary John Wakeham. Norman Tebbit’s wife Margaret was left severely and permanently paralyzed.
Once police had discovered that the bomb had been planted in room 629, they traced every guest who had stayed there. Three months after the explosion, they found Patrick Magee’s fingerprints on his registration card for the hotel room.
Magee was arrested, found guilty, and given 8 life sentences; the judge recommended he served a minimum of 35 years. Four other members of the IRA were also jailed for their involvement in the plot.
The hotel was re-opened on August 28, 1986 and the re-inauguration was attended by both Margaret Thatcher and Norman Tebbit.
Patrick Magee served 14 years of his prison sentence. He was released in 1999, under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement which was the agreement that finally ended the Troubles.
In 2000, Magee met with Jo Berry, the daughter of Sir Anthony Berry, who was killed in the blast. Berry had decided to dedicate her life to conflict resolution, and Magee is now also actively involved in peace work. The pair now often travel and work together under the banner of Berry’s charity Building Bridges for Peace.